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The system of control of Narcotic Drugs in India has been put in place considering the requirement of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances for medical use and the country’s obligations towards the UN conventions. India is a signatory to The UN Single Convention on Narcotics Drugs 1961, The Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971 and The Convention on Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988 which prescribe various forms of control aimed to achieve the dual objective of limiting the use of narcotics drugs and psychotropic substances for medical and scientific purposes as well as preventing the abuse of the same.

The administrative and legislative setup in the field of Narcotics has been put in place in the country in accordance with the aforesaid spirit of the UN Conventions. The basic legislative instrument of the Government of India in the regard is the Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act, 1985. Various Ministries and Departments under the Government of India as well as the State Governments exercise various functions pertaining to drug demand and supply reduction. The aspect of drug supply reduction is looked after by various enforcement agencies under the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Home Affairs and State Governments. The aspect of drug demand reduction is handled by the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment and that of treatment of drug addicts and their rehabilitation falls under the domain of the Ministry of Health.